Movement history of Wahhabism

Movement history of Wahhabism
Wahhabism movement began its emergence in the Arabian peninsula in the 18th century with the fall of bloodshed and many casualties. Ironically, this occurred among the Muslims themselves. No wonder, because the doctrine of dogmatic, intolerant, very literal and rigid that brought this group has given birth to a total rejection of the other school of thought to the level of a blind, which takfiri doctrine, which considers the group as an infidel. On the basis of claims of purification, the purification of the teachings of Islam to return to the correct (according to their version), it allows resistance movement against all Muslims who are deemed incompatible with his teachings. Then split in Islam's body became inevitable. Islamic civilization was to be falling further behind because it is too preoccupied with internal problems that have been worn.

I. As the Wahhabi sect of Admitted

The term Wahhabi is not proclaimed by the founder or his followers, but it comes from people who are outside. The name derives from the doctrine of the framers of this doctrine, that Muhammad bin 'Abdul Wahhab (1115 H / 1703 AD - 1206 H / 1791 AD). Until now, the Wahhabi sect made official in Saudi Arabia, the respective ideologies dominate many aspects of life there.

This flow of his own followers called Wahhabis rejected, because from the beginning has been a stigma that gave birth to a bad impression, so they prefer the term Ahl al-Almohads or al-Tawhid, which means people who mentauhidkan God. But it was the name they use it to reflect a desire to use exclusively the principle of unity which is the basic foundation of Islam.According to Prof. Hamid Algar, there is no reason to accept a monopoly on the principle of unity, because this movement is the result of ijtihad of a young man who could really be too wrong.Thus, it is reasonable and customary to call "Wahhabism" and "Wahhabis". [1]

The followers of the Wahhabi claim that their purpose is solely to purify the tawhid. Tauhid have been mixed with purified for what they call as shirk, superstition, heresy, and superstition. Islam is full of historical baggage should be streamlined and cleaned by the Muslims return to the main teachings, Al-Quran and Al-Sunnah.

Wahhabism is a specific phenomenon, which must be considered as a separate school of thought or sect of its own.Observers, especially non-Muslims, many of which perform a brief description of their mistake by calling it extreme or conservative Sunni groups. Yet from the beginning, the Sunni scholars themselves think they are not part of the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah. That's because almost all the practices, traditions, and beliefs that are an integral part of Sunni Islam, denounced by Muhammad bin 'Abdul Wahhab. That the Wahhabis are now regarded as a Sunni [2], it indicates that the term "Sunni" has given a very loose sense, the mere recognition of the legitimacy of the first four caliphs. Even the term Sunni is developing now no more mean "non-Shiites". [3] Therefore, the authors consider the Wahhabi sect or school of their own in Islam.

II. Wahhabism trip in History

Founder of the Wahhabi movement, Muhammad bin 'Abdul Wahhab, Tamim clan came from Hambali embracing schools, and strongly influenced by the writings of a scholar named Ibn Taymiyyah bermazhab Hambali who lived in the 14th century AD

Before becoming a preacher, he made many trips to different areas of the motive is not so clear [4]. Mecca, Medina, Baghdad and Basrah (Iraq), Damascus (Syria), Qum (Iran), Afghanistan and India is the region that he had visited. After traveling and studying in different cities, and then he brought the doctrines which are then used as the foundation of thought and belief, that will be considered problematic by the majority Sunni or Shiite.

Some researchers doubt the main motive of pure Wahhabism as a religious movement. They presented evidence that leads to such doubts. One is the evidence submitted by Dr. Abdullah Mohammad Sindi, a professor who came from Saudi Arabia. In a paper entitled "Britain and the Rise of Wahhabism and the House of Saud" [5], he cites a memoir written by a British secret agent who nicknamed Hempher.

In the "Confession of a British Spy" [6], thus the title of the memoir, Hempher acknowledge the existence of a British conspiracy to destabilize the power of the Ottoman Empire (Ottoman) and to create conflict among Muslims.

Hempher pretending to embrace Islam was a long friendship with Muhammad bin 'Abdul Wahhab. Until finally melakukanbrainwash of Muhammad bin 'Abdul Wahhab, so as to assure him that most of the Muslims when it has deviated from the true teachings. And Muhammad bin 'Abdul Wahhab was voted man who can save Islam from deviations.

About the personality of Ibn Abdul-Wahhab, Hempher described it as an unstable, poorly mannered, nervous, arrogant, and stupid. [7]

If the memoir is true, then there is no doubt that the movement of Wahhabism since the beginning has been involved in a conspiracy organized by the colonial British. But because of some researchers who doubt the memoir by pointing out some peculiarities, it does not rule out the possibility that Wahhabism in the first movement is a religious movement. Although in the next stage, the intervention of England can not be denied anymore.

To attract a variety of analysis of a controversial movement, the author divides the history of Wahhabism in three periods:

First Period (1744-1818): Early Round Wahhabi-Saudi alliance

Huraymilah located in Najd, a region in the eastern part of the Arabian peninsula. This is where the propaganda of Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab began after returning from his odyssey. His teaching experience harsh rejection from the local community, including from his own father and brother.

In this period, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab composed a simple little book entitled Kitab al-Tawhid, a poor referral intellectual weight, because in it there is no explanation that shows the building frame of mind of the writer. About this book, see the comments Prof. Hamid Algar:

Rather than describe the most fundamental doctrines of Islam as reflected in its title, the booklet only contains a collection of hadith without any comments, which are arranged in sixty-seven chapters.
Is more nearly correct to say this book and other works of Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab was a student records.
It seems that the protective Wahhabism was embarrassed by the thinness of the work of Muhammad bin 'Abd Wahhab, so they looked at the work that needs to dipertebal size. [8]

After fourteen years of spreading his teachings, he returned to his birthplace, 'Uyaynah, which now has more favorable conditions. Local authorities, namely the 'Uthman ibn Mu'ammar extend its protection to Muhammad bin' Abd al-Wahhab and swear to be faithful to the understanding of monotheism preached by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab.

Protection authorities to Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab became uncontrolled. He was increasingly outspoken mengkafirkan all Muslims are considered to heresy. He began to curse the various traditions and faith of the Muslims, and reject any interpretation of the Qur'an is considered deviant.

However this did not last long. Authorities at the time, 'Uthman ibn Mu'ammar, surrender to a powerful tribal leader in the region, so that in 1744 he expelled the new ruling that makes it move to Al-Dir'iyyah (still in Najd), the capital emirate Muhammad bin Sa'ud, which is actually hostile to the amir' Uyainah time. This is where Ibn 'Abdul Wahhab protection. Subsequently formed a permanent alliance that includes three aspects: political, religious, and marriage. In the political sphere, as amir Ibn Sa'ud gain religious legitimacy; in the field of religion Ibn 'Abdul Wahhab benefit from the appointment of a qadi and his doctrine is expressed as an official school, and the marriage of one of Ibn Sa'ud married the daughter of Muhammad bin' Abdul Wahhab.An alliance which is of course beneficial to both parties. Prof.Abdullah Mohammad Sindi says that the British once again took an active role in the framework of realization of the alliance.Through the support of money and weapons, the easier it is to incite their British alliance. [9]

This initial round of the birth of a theocratic state that would strictly control all forms of religious interpretation, especially in Saudi Arabia.

Muhammad bin Saud and then publicly declare its acceptance of different ideas and religious views Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab. Year 1159 H / 1746 AD, the Wahhabi-Saudi alliance make a formal declaration of jihad against all those who are not in line with the understanding of the tawhid of Wahhabism, the people who are regarded as infidels, idolaters, and apostates.First they attacked the Shiite sect, then the mystics, then started attacking Sunnis. All schools that do not follow them are considered infidels and kosher blood.

In the past 10 years, the alliance grew rapidly to become the dominant force in the Arabian peninsula. Muhammad bin Sa'ud turf growing area of ​​30 square miles. [10]

In 1206 H / 1791 AD, not long after the clash with the ruler of Medina, Muhammad bin 'Abdul Wahhab died. But this does not reduce the motivation to do the conquest and slaughter. In fact, their power grows bigger.

In April 1801, they massacred the Shiites in Karbala, carrying 4000 people were slaughtered in inhumane conditions. They are brutally destroyed the tomb of Imam Husain in there. In 1810 they killed innocent people in the Arabian peninsula. In Makkah they were looting the people who perform the pilgrimage. At Medina they were attacked and desecrated the mosque and tomb of the Prophet.

Realizing that the greater the force, then the next goal is to escape from the Ottoman Empire. It did not take long, successful expansion of Wahhabi Caliphate cause instability in the region, especially in the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and Sham.

Second Period (1818-1932): Defeat and the New Awakening

The Wahhabi occupation force Haramain official heir to the Caliphate, the Ottoman Empire, to act decisively. Moreover, the various acts of terror being waged Wahhabi groups that have aroused the anger of the Muslim world. To follow up, Istanbul to send Egyptian troops to quell the movement. In 1818 AD, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt defeated the Wahhabis. Dir'iyyah was razed to the ground. Abdullah al-Sa'ud, amir then, along with two of his followers brought to Istanbul. Publicly beheaded. Some were taken to Cairo to be detained there. This is a lesson that the Ottoman Empire wanted to show to people who combine with the political ambitions of religious aberrations.

The defeat left the Wahhabis make the burning flames of hostility towards other Muslim groups. But ironically, the closer to the colonial British. This is seen as the year 1851, Faisal Ibn Turki al-Saud who previously escaped from custody in Cairo, again asked for British support. As a follow-up that relationship, in 1865 the British sent Colonel Lewis Pelly to Riyadh to make an agreement.

At the beginning of the 20th century, when British forces and the increasingly successful strategy to undermine the Ottoman Caliphate, back when it's Wahhabi leader, Abdul 'Aziz, was used. Again, the Wahhabi terror group re-done. Reportedly, about 1200 people who defied brutally massacred. [11]

Thanks to support England, slowly but surely the Wahhabi-Saudi alliance under the leadership of Abdul 'Aziz had conquered almost the entire Arabian Peninsula. Peak, in 1932 formed the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This period marked the rise of Wahhabi-Saudi alliance new.

Third Period (1932-Present): New Patron and the weakening of the bond

This period was marked by the acquisition of the oil wealth and the transition from England to America as their main foreign patron. This alliance re-used special instruments to American interests and allies in the Middle East.

Through the disbursement of petrodollar, in recent decades and Wahhabismenya Arabia seeks not only eliminate the stigma attached to him, but also dramatically trying to improve self-image in the Islamic world. Therefore, Wahhabism has been presented as a reformist movement that aims solely to perform body purification in Islam. The founder, Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhab was a reformer who appear as characters have managed to purify Islam from a variety of stains.

Embarrassing things that the spotlight of the world was trying to be eliminated. Discrimination against women as third class citizens increasingly reduced. But the sectarian issues concerning the poor treatment of minority sects, especially Shiites, still ongoing. [12]

But over time, symptoms of weakening the bond between the Wahhabi religious groups and the Saudi family became more obvious. The main trigger is the rampant corruption, hedonistic lifestyle, as well as from the appearance of symptoms of secularization. A small number of people began to dare to criticize and dare to reveal the distortions of the Saudi regime.

Uprising in Mecca in November 1979, led by Muhammad Juhaiman 'Uteybi, a former Saudi National Guard Corporal, be an early warning of disappointment in some circles of the Saudi kingdom. Mastered by a group of armed Haram quite shocked the world. Political turmoil broke out. Then the Americans and Europeans together to help the Saudi government to restore the situation in the Holy Land. [13]

1991 Gulf War and the expansion of the U.S. presence making wide gap between the Wahhabis and the Saud regime.

While the Saudi government more intimate with the U.S., Wahhabi clerics actually think the U.S. and its allies are enemies to be combated. So people ask, if so, where Wahhabi clerics when American ravaged Iraq, when Israel strikes Hezbollah held for 33 days, as well as ongoing genocide against the Palestinian people until now? The answer is simple: to help fight illegal people who are not seakidah with them. [14] It also led to the Saudi royal half-heartedly when supporting America's troops attack Taliban in Afghanistan which Wahhabi sensible postscript.

So when the World Trade Center in New York was destroyed on September 11, 2001, Wahhabi clerics called 'Abdullah bin Jibrin issued a fatwa that not only justify the attack on the WTC, but also condemned heretics and Muslims who collaborate with the United States, a category which obviously included the Saudi royal family. [15] But nonetheless, there are many ranks of Wahhabi clerics who remained loyal to the Saudi regime.

III. Salafism: The New Face of Wahhabism?

There is a rather vague understanding between Wahhabism and Salafism, whether they are the same or different. Because, the Wahhabis are often on behalf of themselves as As-Salaf.However, if viewed from the historical categorization, there is a difference between the two.

In response to various developments in the Islamic world, in association with the increasing breadth of the Western imperialist domination, there was a reformer figures like Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad 'Abduh, Rashid Rida, followed by the Muslim Brotherhood, and brevity forwarded by the various figures and known as the Salafi movement.

Among the figures above reformer, Rashid Rida known most fundamentalist and conservative. As Ibn Abdul Wahhab, was a direct reference to the past and the pious predecessors (al-Salaf al-Salih), therefore they are referred to as the Salafi movement.However, unlike Wahhabism, the movement is trying to reconcile the ideas of "modern" Islam and find (and interpret) return the virtues which they found in religion. [16]

Due to the political situation in the Arab world, the 1960's created a closer relationship between the Salafi and Wahhabi occurs when the cold war between the camp of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Under the umbrella organization of Muslim World League of Saudi Arabia was formed in 1962, closer links between the Salafis and Wahhabis materialized. The members of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt (and later in Syria) is almost hard to blame if they get closer to Saudi Arabia, given the attacks they received in their own country. Though their concern is reasonable, that is increasingly concerned with the grip of foreign imperialism. Maybe that's why people with the Salafi trend as Rashid Rida, who with a feeling of disappointment was looking for a hero, from sympathetic to Wahhabism.

In the midst of a transformation of Islam that developed in the Middle East, one of the known patterned hard fruit is born from the thought of Sayyid Qutb (w.1960). Initially, he described the condition of contemporary society as a neo-Jahiliyyah, but was later interpreted by the flow of radical Islamists who are younger and more extreme in Egypt (and in some places in the Middle East). The most serious implication which has been elaborated is the concept of takfir. Nominal Muslims (Islam "ID") has become an infidel and therefore potentially allowed to be killed. [17]

Radical character that's probably what makes some people equate Salafism with Wahhabism. Indeed, Salafism has some similarities with the religious views of Wahhabism, but the difference is quite striking. As for the distinction is as follows:
Salafi persuasion rather than coercion is more emphasized in order to invite Muslims to accept their views.
Salafis have the awareness and knowledge about political and social crisis-hit economies of the Islamic world.
Salafi reconcile modern ideas with the Islamic values.

Distinction can be drawn on when-once again-term Salafism historically associated with categorization as previously noted.Given the rather vague at this time to distinguish between them, especially those growing in Indonesia.

IV. The doctrine of Wahhabism at a glance

After describing the history of Wahhabism, it is important to mention a little teaching their main doctrines.

Previous history of exposure, can actually read what their teaching style. However in this section the author will try to summarize it, adding a few points that the authors consider important.

The Wahhabis, like its founder, are the ones who think highly linear, literal, rigid, and highly denotative in understanding the verses of the Qur'an and the Hadith. Generally, they refused to Majaz (metaphor). For them, all these innovations were misled and misguided it all go to hell. So that innovation is just a euphemism, euphemism for 'infidel'. [18]

They also reject the existence of art and culture in Islam, and not concerned with Islamic heritage. Therefore, the historic sites of Islam as the birthplace of the Prophet's house, the house of Khadija Umm Mu'minin, as well as the residence of the Prophet destroyed. In fact, according to Shaykh Ja'far Subhani, originally Muhammad ibn 'Abdul Wahhab focused its efforts only to destroy the graves only, not to destroy any relics left by the Prophet and his noble companions. But his followers have now expanded his business by culling any Islamic heritage, on the pretext of expansion of both shrines, Mecca and Medina. [19] This is very unfortunate and it is important to note that Muslims around the world.

Day by day, Muslims are increasingly experiencing problems accumulate. But the Wahhabis, the main issue Muslims lies in the issue of monotheism, in which they divide into three parts: [20]

1). Tawheed al-Rububiyyah

This monotheism implies the recognition that only God alone who has the nature of the rabb, the lord and creator of the world, which turn on and off. Tawheed is that with just a verbal acknowledgment alone is not sufficient to achieve quality as a Muslim.

2). Asma al-Tawhid wa al-Nature

Implies only confirmed the name and properties mentioned in the Qur'an. Not allowed to apply these names to anyone other than God. This is a repetition of what was formulated by Ibn Taymiyyah who criticized the anthropomorphism.

3). Tawheed al-'Worship

Implies that all worship is addressed only to God. Tawheed is what is considered the most important, the limit firmly between Islam and kufr, between monotheism and polytheism. Here Tawheed al-'ibâdahdidefinisikan negatively, in the sense of avoiding certain practices, not in the affirmative. This is the result of fear of what is regarded as aberrations. This helps explain why Wahhabism has a very strong character. [21] Thus all forms of tawassul, ziyarah, tabarruk, syafâ'ah, to practices that have become tradition in the case of Sunni and Shia Islam's birthday, is considered a violation of Tawheed al-'worship.

In view of the Wahhabi heresy was divided into two: 1). Heresy in the customs and traditions; 2). Heresy in religion. The first heresy laws permissible / allowed, while the second illegitimate and misguided. The second heresy is further subdivided into two: heresy and heretics qawliyyah i'tiqadiyyah fi al-'worship.

For Wahhabis, the Shiites, Sufis, and most of the Sunnis have been doing a good heresy heresy and heretics qawliyyah i'tiqadiyyah fi al-'worship. Thus it should (even must) be fought.

V. Reflection

Wahhabism in the beginning it was a purely religious movement of the ideas of a young man in response to the diversity of local practices that tarnish the purity of Islam is seen. That he then used as a tool by the British for plug hegemony, this is another thing that is undeniable, historical evidence suggests so. But to say that from the beginning had been arranged by the British, requiring evidence that stronger again. The memoir 'Confessions of a British Spy' is not strong enough as evidence because they contain some anomalies, though still worth reading for the 'touch' the situation as it Arabian peninsula.

If only the Wahhabi-Saudi alliance did not have the wealth of huge oil reserves, may only scratched Wahhabism movement in recorded history as an intellectual movement that is thought to be marginal and short-lived. But good fortune as a country capable of making their fortune exist to this day. They have a strong capital so as to spread the understanding of Wahhabism in the Islamic world, down to Indonesia. [22] And the spread of Wahhabism in Indonesia is quite rapid. This is one reason why Indonesia is often referred to as the previous example par excellence of the Muslim community that is soft and cool, gradually radicalized under the influence of ideology and culture outside.

Characteristics of a highly rigid Wahhabism has come to kill the tradition of dialectics that characterizes the Islamic civilization for centuries. Concrete example can be found in Mecca and Medina. It is unfortunate that the Haramain who had been for centuries the center of the intellectual world of Islam, in the hands of Wahhabi ends. There's hardly anything left except the institutions that preach Wahhabism is absurd given the label of the University. Whereas intellectual activity determines the development of civilization of a nation. While still in the hands of Wahhabi power, it is difficult to restore Mecca and Medina to the early days when the city was still the center of the development of science in the Islamic world.

Induced expansion of Wahhabism also touches aspects of arts and culture. Facts found now, hardly any cultural and artistic heritage of Islam in Saudi Arabia. Then it becomes a serious threat when they succeeded in exporting their respective ideologies to successfully suppress art and culture which is the local content of a region.

It is difficult to accept when Wahhabism refused to cultural diversity and appreciation of art. Since time immemorial the art and cultural diversity in Islam is so rich, very colorful expression.Even in the Sufi view, art is a manifestation of divine beauty that is able to excite spiritualism.

Another highlight in the spotlight is the issue of Islamic unity.Radical ways in which they traveled has led to counterproductive actions. Islamic unity that had been kept intact by various groups, Sunni or Shia are seriously threatened due to the narrow view of the Wahhabis, who unfortunately again, easy to provoke, a tool used by the enemies of Islam.

There have been many scholars, both Muslim and non-Muslims, who are concerned about the negative implications of the expansion of Wahhabism. They are quite prolific producing scientific work to unravel the dark history of Wahhabism.Unfortunately, this issue is not something that appeals to the majority of our society. Then the result of negligent attitude, no wonder if you know Wahhabism easily get into the schools to the university. [23]

Puzzling why the students might be interested in the views of Wahhabism. But the attraction it may be reasonable, considering the students familiar with the rationalistic world view that is driven by their studies in technology, engineering and natural sciences.Then they found in the Islamic Wahhabism there are (as) has been rationalized, that is Islam that has been cleared of theological complexity and the complexity of Sufism, which is assessed in addition to belonging to heresy. In short, they find that Islam is presented in a simple form and "black-white" for them.

It should be noted that not all of Wahhabism and Salafism that is now agreed by violent means. This is in line with the dynamics of life, the spectrum formed is becoming increasingly wide and spawned a new categorizations. In this case, as long as they do not use violent means, their mission can not be blamed. Thus this becomes a big PR for us to try to present the religious sciences "original" as the menu is inviting young people early on.Therefore, they could be easily indoctrinated by the teachings of Wahhabism is because most of them do not realize how truly Islamic scientific ocean is so vast and fascinating. []

[1] Algar, Hamid. Wahhabism, A Critical Review, London: Paramadina, 2008, p 28

[2] The Wahhabis themselves consider them as representations of the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah.

[3] Algar, Hamid, op. cit., p 30

[4] Hamid Algar looked at the journey motif of Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab is still a question mark. Other historians say on business or just have fun. Some say the motive was to gain knowledge journey.

[5] Abdullah Mohammad Sindi, Britain and the Rise of Wahhabism and the House of Saud, e-Bulletin Vol.IV 16 January 2004,

[6] Although the record or a book called Confessions of a British Spy apocryphal by some, including Prof. Hamid Algar, but quite worth reading to find out the picture of the situation in Arabia at that time.

[7] Waqf Ikhlas, Confession of a British Spy, Istanbul: Waqf Ikhlas Publications No.14, Eight Edition, 2001

[8] Algar, Hamid, op. cit., p 30, 44, 45, 47

[9] Dr. Abdullah Mohammad Sindi, op. cit.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Ibid.

[12] International Crisis Group, in the journal dated 19 September 2005, reported that the intimidation of minority Shi'ites continue, even in schools teachers mengkafirkan Shiites openly in front of their students. Not to mention the fatwa Wahhabi clerics who openly justify the blood of the Shiites.

[13] Trofimov, Yaroslav, Coup Mecca, eBooks, Library

[14] This issue can be checked on a website Wahhabi / Salafi both outside and inside the country. For example:

[15] Algar, Hamid, op.cit., P 119

[16] Fealy, Greg and Anthony Bubalo, caravan trail, Effect of Middle East radicalism in Indonesia, Bandung: Mizan, 2007, p 32

[17] Ibid, p 41

[18] Mohsen Labib, Wahhabism and 'Theology

[19] Subhani, Jafar, Al-Milal wa al-Nihal, Thematic Studies School Kalam, Pekalongan: Al-Hadi Publishing, 1997, p 363

[20] Algar, Hamid, op.cit., P 69

[21] Ibid, p 72

[22] Greg Fealy and Anthony Bubalo in his book, The caravan trail, said that the three organizations in Indonesia in particular receives significant funding from Saudi Arabia. They are DDII, Al-Irsyad, and Exact. (Fealy, Greg and Anthony Bubalo, caravan trail, New York: Mizan, 2007)

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